The comma’s broad function is to separate words, phrases and clauses in a sentence to make it easily understood.
Setting off names and people
Are you seeing her tomorrow, Jane?
Look, Bob, a beautiful eagle.
Children, be quiet and listen.
Please buy apples, oranges, grapes and onions.
My favourite colours are red, white and blue.
Itemising groups of words
You may have the cheese board, the chocolate cake, the coffee or the mango surprise.
Separating thoughts or qualifications
The reviewers thought it was, after careful consideration, the best book in the category.
It was, on the whole, a very successful evening.
Setting off interjections
Wow, what a beautiful dog!
Well, I have never seen this restaurant so busy.
Wait, I will be there in a minute.
Setting off direct speech
John lifted his eyes and said, “The little green men are coming.”
Comparative and contrasting statements
The bigger they are, the harder they fall.
The more he protested his innocence, the less they listened.
He will pass the exam, I know it.
She is innocent, that’s the truth.
Setting off an introductory word or phrase
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How to use the comma with examples